In this issue-
by Glenn Valis
US flag, 1777
NJ did not have an official state or colony flag until the late 1890's.
do know the militia did sometimes use flags, because Royal Gov.
Franklin wrote they appeared outside his mansion with colors
flying and drums beating. Later, Continental units had a NJ flag
of some type, according to the official NJ flag web site:
On March 23rd, 1779 during the war of
the Revolution, the Continental Congress, by resolution authorized and
directed the Commander-in-Chief to prescribe the uniform, both as to
color and facings, for the regiments of the New Jersey Continental Line.
In accordance with this resolution,
General Washington, in General Orders dated Army Headquarters, New
Windsor, New York, October 2nd, 1779, directed that the coats for such
regiments should be dark blue, faced with buff.
On February 28th, 1780, the
Continental War Officers in Philadelphia directed that each of said
regiments should have two flags, viz: one the United States flag and
the other a State flag, the ground to be of the color of the facing.
Thus the State flag of New Jersey became the beautiful and historic
buff, as selected for it by the Father of His Country, and it was
displayed in view of the combined French and American armies in the
great culminating event of the War of the Revolution, the capitulation
of a British army under Lieutenant General Earl Cornwallis at Yorktown.
The NJ state seal was adopted in May of 1777. It
forms the center piece of the NJ flag today.
Unfortunately, the flag is
buff, and so is my site page background.
The seal is classic symbolism of heraldry. Here is what the state
web page says about it:
New Jersey's state seal was designed
by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere and
presented in May, 1777, to the Legislature, which was then meeting in
the Indian King Tavern in Haddonfield.
The three plows in the shield honor
the state's agricultural tradition.
The helmet above the shield faces forward, an attitude denoting
sovereignty and thus particularly fitting for one of the first
governments created under the notion that the state itself is the
sovereign. The crest above the helmet is a horse's head.
The supporting female figures are
Liberty and Ceres, the Roman goddess
of grain, symbolizing abundance. Liberty, on the viewer's left, carries
the liberty cap on her staff. Ceres holds a cornucopia filled with
Although the Seal's major elements
have kept their relative positions
for more than 200 years, there have been a number of lesser changes.
The staff that Liberty now holds with her right hand she once held in
the crook of her left arm. While the female figures now face straight
ahead, they at one time looked away from the shield. The cornucopia
that Ceres now holds upright was once inverted, its open end upon the
ground. The Seal was redesigned in accordance with Joint Resolution 8
of the Laws of 1928. It was then that the year of statehood, 1776,
first appeared in Arabic figures.
Heard's Brigade, wanting a battle flag for some events, created a flag
based on the supposition that an early NJ flag would have used symbols
from the seal- they chose a horse and plow. It does seem
possible, even likely, but is not a recreation. But it is
a nice looking flag,
with historic elements. The 1st NJ uses similar symbols on their
flag, but they have thirteen stars in the corner.
School writings by the Luvera boys- (pictures and all).
The Dawn of a New War
In 1775 William Dawes was walking warily toward Lexington Green. The
moon shone brightly down on the Green, which was crowded with
minutemen. His horse had thrown him a few miles back.
He was bruised, hungry, and thirsty so he proceeded straight to
the tavern. It was dark and empty except for a man sleeping in the
corner. He smelled the stale smoke and walked over to the
fireplace. He helped himself to a serving of corn chowder, salted
pork and a piece of stale cornbread. After his meal he felt drowsy and
dozed off. When he woke up he surveyed the tavern full of
minutemen, who were warming themselves with fire and drink.
Suddenly, the door flew open. Crash! Everyone turned to behold
the audacious new arrival, Paul Revere. “The British are
advancing!” he announced vehemently before he ran upstairs.
As William watched the minutemen arm and prepare themselves, he thought
about how his adventure began.
About 10 o’clock last night, he was called to Dr. Warren’s
house. The doctor told Dawes that the British were marching
toward Concord to destroy the ammunition stores. He coaxed
William to warn the citizens. Immediately, Dawes departed for Concord.
He walked down the main street and through the southern gate. He
stopped for a brief chat with the British soldiers, flanking the south
gate, so as not to arouse suspicions, and then he continued home.
At home, William headed toward the stable and saddled his horse.
After he mounted his horse, he set out for Concord. The perilous
road wound south and west before circling north towards
Lexington. He passed Cambridge but did not stop because he
spotted the glow of the British lanterns in the East. He urged his
horse to run faster! When he arrived at Lexington, he stopped at
Mr. Clark’s house. There he found Paul Revere. After they
refreshed themselves, they continued on to Concord. On the way,
they met Dr. Prescott, who offered to help warn the colonists. Thus the
party of three endeavored to alarm the minutemen along the road from
Lexington to Concord.
They were halfway to Concord when they saw a British Patrol
coming towards them. William tricked the British by pretending to be a
loyalist. He cunningly convinced the British Patrol that Prescott
and Revere were the militiamen; therefore they pursued Revere and
Prescott. The British patrol captured Paul, but Dawes and
Prescott escaped. Meanwhile William hid in an abandoned, secluded
house till the British were gone. Once the danger subsided, he set out
to return to Lexington. On the way back he was thrown from his horse,
hence he had to walk back to town.
Abruptly, he heard incessant beating drums, which were calling the men
to assemble. The militiamen rushed out of the tavern. Then Paul
came down the stairs dragging a huge wooden trunk and told him that the
British were approaching. He followed him outside and observed
that the militiamen were lined up on the other side of the Green along
Harrington Road. Meanwhile, the British infantry were lining up
oppositely off to his left. Without delay Dawes walked
quickly along Bedford Road toward the stables to get a better
view. The 5th light infantry marched briskly past him and fell in
behind the other British lines. Across the field and along the
main street, Major Pitcairn shouted, “Disperse ye Rebels, throw
down your arms and disperse!” The indignant militiamen
refused! There was much chatter and confusion among them when Captain
John Parker ordered them to disperse. William watched the chaos as the
militiamen began to retreat over fences and stonewalls. Suddenly,
someone fired a shot! He did not see who discharged first, but he
did hear the distinct sound of a pistol. Then two more shots were let
off and then he heard a continual roar of muskets. As the sun
rose higher in the sky, the militia fired at the British, while the
British fired continuously at the retreating militia. Soon the bright
sunlit field turned grey with smoke and he smelled the acrid black
After the smoke cleared, eight militiamen were dead and more were
wounded on the field. William watched as Dr. Warren arrived on
horseback and began to tend the wounded. Lexington Green was now
desolate. The militia had dispersed. The British marched toward
Concord. At that moment, William realized that on this morning he had
just witnessed the start of a war!
The Attack of the Rebels
John Paul Luvera
It was humid and a little chilly, as Major John Pitcairn and his
men marched diligently toward Concord. The road, muddy and flanked with
freshly ploughed fields, passed through Lexington. Outside of
Lexington, men approached them on horseback. They were the
officers, who had captured Paul Revere. Anxiously, they told Pitcairn
that about 500 men were waiting for them at Lexington Green to stop
their progress to Concord. Hence Major Pitcairn ordered his men,
“Arm your weapons and fix your bayonets”. Once their
weapons were prepared, Pitcairn mounted his horse and led his men. They
marched on to Lexington.
As he rode his horse, Pitcairn remembered how the imperative mission
started. Colonel Smith woke him up abruptly and ordered him to assemble
the men at the Common. After he had lined them up, Colonel Smith
informed them that the rebels were stockpiling weapons and ammunition
in Concord. “These supplies must be destroyed! We march to
Concord tonight!” exclaimed Major Pitcairn. Discreetly,
they left the Common. Next, he marched them down to the docks where
they rowed across the shallow bay. On the north shore, they
disembarked and continued their campaign to Concord. At this time he
did not fathom that there was about to be trouble along the way.
When Pitcairn arrived at Lexington green, he spotted 77
militiamen. He was appalled to observe such a little force
against him. He did not want to provoke the militiamen therefore
he bellowed, “Disperse you rebels, throw down your arms and
disperse!” The rebels began to disappear over fences, around
walls and behind trees. Suddenly, a rebel fired a shot.
Pitcairn’s marines started to fire at the colonials, while he
continuously shouted, “Seize fire!” But they did not hear
him over the roar of muskets. At first the militia mistakenly
thought the redcoats were shooting blanks until several fell over
dead. So the militia fired back! Realizing that they were
outnumbered and out matched, the militia retreated. The British,
who were now free to advance, set off to Concord leaving behind the
acrid stench of gunpowder. Resolutely, Pitcairn marched his
marines onward to complete his orders. In Concord
Pitcairn’s men destroyed as much of the supplies and ammunitions,
as they could find. Then they hustled back to Boston.
On the way back to Boston, the militiamen viciously attacked the
British soldiers from behind trees, fences or walls. A bullet
grazed Pitcairn’s horse and he was thrown. Thus, he had to walk
the rest of the way back to Boston alongside his men.
On his walk back, Pitcairn thought about this fateful day. The
inevitable had happened! The colonials fired on the British! The
rebels would not be subdued! They attacked the British and now
they could not be reconciled without a fight!
The Trail of King George for Tyranny
The unit does a nice skit for the public, having a trial of King George
(an effigy) for his tyrannical actions. It is funny, George being
pompous, rude, insulting and obviously guilty- and the members watching
urk on the crowd.
here is a video on Youtube of two of our young men doing the
Alex and Ray do a good job...Ray even manages a Brit accent!
Standing orders from the Commander: Safety is the most
important part of our reenactment life. We don't want members or
others to get hurt. If we do not act safely, we lose our chance
to reenact at all. We could lose our ability to field with other
units, have our insurance go up, even cause the entire insurance system
for the hobby to get more expensive.
In the field, men at arms must make sure the arrive to
formations with weapons functional, ready and safe. You can not
carry cartridges in your pockets. Cartridges must not contain
over 120 grains of powder. You should be using 100 grains or
less. Spare cartridges should be in a tin, or aluminum foil in
Handle your weapon safely. Make sure your barrel extends
well out in front of the front rank. Bring it to the shoulder to
fire. Never fire past someone- even if they can't be hit, you can
damage their ears. Don't actually point it at anyone- aim just over
their heads. KNOW if your gun fired. Double loading is a
safety error, and one you announce to everyone. If you put over
two loads down the barrel, recoil can now hurt you or someone else!
I have seen broken collarbones from it on the field! Smoke
will stream from the touch hole if your musket fired. If you are
not sure, dump before reloading.
In camp we are required to have a water bucket near the
fire, and a wool blanket nearby for firefighting. Don't let the
public near a fire. You can make a simple 'wall' by putting logs
or equipment to block access. People hesitate to step over things.
Be careful with edged tools, and don't let the public
handle unsheathed blades. Never hand over a firelock to the
public- keep a hand on it. That is not just for safety but is the
law...handing someone a firearm who does not have a FIREARM ID card is
illegal in NJ. If by chance they are stupid and hurt themselves
or others, you can be charged.
Hot metal pots, fire and cutting implements are all
potential hazards. Be safe in camp as well as the field!
Make it a habit to never touch a pot with your hand, use a
potholder instead. Use EXTRA caution chopping and cutting.
From the pension application of Sylvester
, page 9.
Marius later was in John Outwater's company of State troops.
His friend testifying for him, Benjamin Romaine, served with
Captain Outwater for several months. When he mentions "regular
troops and years men" he means State troops.
Benjamin Romaine being duly sworn
deposes and saith that he became acquainted with Sergeant Sylvester
Marius sometime in the early part of the year seventeen and seventy
eight and were both in the year service at Hackensack in Bergen county
and state of New Jersey, that to his best recollection it was in the
spring of the year 1778, information was had that the British were to
make a foraging expedition from this city (New York) then in their
possession. To some part of New Jersy, and that Hackensack was supposed
to be their destination as it very frequently had been and so continued
to be during the whole of the Revolutionary war- To the best of
deponents recollection two companies were ordered down to the English
Neighborhood on the lookout consisting of the regular troops and year
men- an advance party of about eighteen men were detailed and ordered
to leadthe van under the command of a Lieutenant of the standing
troops, of this number was Sergeant Marius and deponent. The
march was through the night and as usual flanks (sic) of two men on each side
of the regular road and about 100 yards from it to prevent the main
body from a surprise were alternately sent out and relieved at short
intervals from additional fatigue of climbing fences. Sergeant
Marius and deponent had only been on that flank march on the left hand
of the road a few minutes when passing a barn they were hailed by the
British centinels (sic)and instantly fired on at a distance of a few
feet. The baze of light this informed us that they were
enemies. Sylvester fell and I ran to the road and informed our
lieutenant that the barn was filled with enemy soldiers. We all
sprang over the fence and soon fired into the barn and received some
shots from the enemy as they passed on to the road we had just
left. We made one prisoner who ran to us by mistake. The
conflict which occurred after day light about two miles further down
the road was severe. Our little advance party believe if the main
body were not far in our rear as they must have heard the firing, we
followed the enemy and were ambushed on the road leading to Bulls Ferry
on the Hudson river. Several were killed and wounded : our
main body had failed to come on and give us aid as expected…..
Dutch Koolslaw, presented by Jim Smith
1 head cabbage
2/3 c. sugar
1/2 c. Crisco oil or olive oil
1/2 c. vinegar
1/2 c. water
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. celery seed
1/2 tsp. mustard seed
Shred the cabbage. Cut onion in small pieces. Mix all together all
ingredients. Best if made day before and kept in refrigerator.